Canada – a state in North America, bordering the United States of America, in the north is washed by the Arctic Ocean, in the northeast – Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, in the east – Atlantic Ocean, in the west – the Pacific Ocean. The capital is Ottawa. Canada includes a large number of islands: Baffin Island Land, Victoria Island, Elsmere Island, Devon Island, Banks Island, Newfoundland Island and others. The area of the country is 9.970.610 sq km, of which 755,180 sq km are covered by freshwater lakes and rivers. Canada has more lakes than any other country in the world.
In addition to the Great Lakes, which are partly in Canada, there are 31 other large lakes in the country. The most famous are the Big Bear, the Great Slave, Lake Winnipeg, Lake Athabasca, Lake Manitoba, Lake Nipigon, Lake Mistasini. Among Canada’s largest rivers is the St. Lawrence River, which originates in the Great Lakes and flows into the Bay of St. Lawrence; major tributaries of St. Lawrence – Ottawa and Sogene Rivers; River St. John, flowing into the Bay of Fundy; The Saskatchewan River, which flows into Lake Winnipeg, and the Nelson River, which originates in Lake Winnipeg and flows into the Hudson Bay; The Mackenzie River, together with the Slave, Athabasca and the Mirnaya, flow into the Arctic Ocean; In Canada, the Yukon River originates; Canada’s largest river flowing into the Pacific Ocean is the Fraser River. In the western part of the country is a ridge of the Rocky Mountains, which is called the mountains of St. Elias, the highest peaks of the country are here: Mount Logan (5951 m), Mount St. Elias (5489 m), Mount Luconia (5226 m), Mount King Peak (5173 m).
Administrative-territorial division – 10 provinces (Ontario, quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Newfoundland) and 3 territories – Northwest, Nunavut and Yukon.
Largest cities: Toronto (3893,000), Montreal (31,280,000), Vancouver (1603,000), Ottawa (921,000), Edmonton (840,000), Calgary (754,000), Winnipeg (66 52,500 people), quebec (646,000 people), Hamilton (600,000 people), London (382,000 people), St. Ketrin (365,000), Kitchener (356,500 people), Halifax (320,500 people).
The population of the country is about 31 million people, the average population density is about 3 people per sq km. Ethnic groups: The British – 28%, the French – 23% (the majority of the French-speaking population lives in quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick), Asians – 5% (most Asian immigrants live in Ontario and British Columbia), Germans, Italians, Poles, Ukrainians, Hungarians, Greeks, Dutch (Europeans make up about 16% of the population), American Indians – 4% (canada is home to about 600 different tribes) Black – 2%. Religion: Catholics – 46%, Protestants – 41% (English Church, Baptists, Presbyterians, Lutherans, Pentecostals), Orthodox – 2%, Muslims – 1%, Jews – 1%, Buddhists, Ist, Sikhs.
The state structure is a parliamentary confederation. The head of state is the queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor-General.
Average life expectancy (as of 1992): 74 years – men, 81 years – women.
The birth rate (per 1000 people) is 14. The mortality rate (per 1000 people) is 7.
The currency is the Canadian dollar.
The Liberal Party (LP) is the former ruling party of Canada. Founded in 1873, it expresses the interests of the main social strata of Canadian society, the majority of its middle class. The basis of the political program of the Liberal Party is the protection of the principle of free enterprise, combined with the active regulatory role of the state, the course to keep key sectors of the economy under national control, diversification of the country’s external relations.
Progressive Conservative Party (PKK) – Founded in 1854, the Party expresses the interests of large-scale entrepreneurship, affluent farming in western Canada. The political program is based on limiting the role of the state in the economy, reducing public spending, developing close economic, political and military cooperation with leading Western countries, primarily with the United States.
The bloc – established in 1991 – various political factions and movements of quebec, which advocate the separation of the province from Canada and the declaration of its independent state.
The New Democratic Party (NDP) was founded in 1961 on the basis of social democracy. Federation of the Cooperative Commonwealth and parts of Canadian trade unions.
Historical facts. It is believed that the first Europeans to set foot on Canadian land (Newfoundland Island) were Icelandic Vikings around 1000 AD However, they were unable to colonize the country. The second wave of Europeans arrived between 1480 and 1540. In 1497, several expeditions to the island of Newfoundland began British claims to Canadian territory. In the 30s and 40s of the 16th century, the French navigator Jacques Cartier made several expeditions along the River St. Lawrence and declared these lands owned by France. Throughout the 16th century, Britain and France did not compete very strongly for Canada because of domestic problems. However, in the 17th and 18th centuries the rivalry sharply escalated, and in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris New France passed into the possession of Great Britain. On 1 Resign, 1867, Canada was given the right to form its own government without leaving the British Empire. The country actually gained independence and adopted the name Dominion Canada. At first, the federation did not include the islands of Newfoundland and Prince Edward. In modern borders, Canada developed in the 1870s, and the island of Newfoundland became part of the country in 1949. In the same year, Canada joined NATO. In 1965, the national flag of Canada was introduced<Кленовый лист=””>(1969 – the equality of English and French in the country.</Кленовый> 1980 was marked by a referendum on the independence of the French-speaking province of quebec. Only 40% of the electorate voted to secede from Canada.
The average summer temperature is 21 o C, the average winter temperature taking into account the northern areas -16 about C. The central part of the country is occupied by plains and plateaus. In the west – the mountain system Cordiller. The highest point is Mount Logan (6050 m). Canada’s climate varies from region to region. For example, on the west bank of the country the climate is affected by warm ocean currents.
The vegetation of the northern part of the country is typically tundra. Most of the coastal provinces are covered with forests. Prairie provinces are mostly occupied by grasses and have no forests. Between the Hudson Bay and the Rocky Mountains grow rare forests: mainly spruce, American larch and poplar. Rare pine forests grow on the dry slopes of the Rocky Mountains. Closer off the Pacific coast forests thicken: several species of spruce, cedar, juniper, Canadian yew. Canada’s fauna is quite rich. In particular, in the Canadian forests there are many fur animals: sable, fox, marten, ermine, mink, wolverine. Among predators: brown bear, lynx, wolf, coyote, fox, baribal (black bear). In the southern part of the country there are several subspecies of Virgin deer, black-tailed deer is typical of British Canada, there is also a vilorog antelope. In the north and west of the country there are elk, bison, musk ox, Arctic caribou and forest caribou. In the mountains of British Canada there are many fat-horned (snow sheep) and a large number of birds, and freshwater fish.
Natural and architectural attractions.
Among the natural attractions attracting tourists are spring flower festivals: the Spring Festival in Ottawa (Tulip Festival) in May – the most significant of them. The Niagara Festival of Grapes and Wine is held in the autumn. Autumn tours are held in Ontario and quebec. Canada has a large number of nature reserves and national parks (they occupy an area of 730,000 sq km). The most famous: the national <Вуд-Буффало>park, which houses the largest herd of bison; Kutene, Giasie and Joho national parks, famous glaciers and waterfalls; Jasper National Park – glaciers, lakes, hot springs, among animals – bears, mountain goats and elk; Canada’s oldest national park, which is a mountain resort with hot springs – Bauff Park; national park <Эле-Айленд>(Lose Island) – a large number of beautiful forest lakes, among animals – elk, bis.</Эле-Айленд> </Вуд-Буффало>
As for architectural landmarks, they include the Grand Palace Theatre in Dawson, which has survived since the <золотой лихорадки=””>days; Dindern Castle in Hamilton (built in 1830); the 553-metre-high TV tower in Toronto; and the 553-metre-high Grand Palace. 19th-century citadel, Ursulinok Monastery (1641), Church of Notre Dame de Victoire (1688), Notre Dame de quebec Cathedral (1650), Anglican Cathedral 1793 19th century Parliament Building; Montreal Seminary of St. Sulpicia (1685), Church of Notre Dame de No Secur (1829), Chateau de Ramse (1705).</золотой>
Culture and sport.
Among Canada’s cultural and sporting events is the Shakespeare Festival in Ontario; Canadian Culture Festival in Ottawa; International Festival of Festivals, International Jazz and Film Festivals, and races <Формула-1>in Montreal; Sherbrooke <Фестиваль де=”” кантон=””>in quebec, which showcases the culture and cuisine of canadian French; ukrainian festival in Dauphin; <День открытия=””>Dawson, which celebrates the opening of a gold deposit in 1896; the Elonaif Festival of Caribou and dog sledding; Calgary hosts a well-known annual rodeo; Fin Elon, a trout-fishing competition; Campbellton hosts a salmon festival.</День> </Фестиваль> </Формула-1> There are more than 2,100 museums and historic parks in Canada. Best known: Canadian Museum of Civilization in Hull; Ottawa is the Canadian Museum of Nature, the National Museum of Science and Technology, the National Gallery of Canada, which exhibits European art, one of the richest collections of Asian art. In Whitehorse: The Mc Braid Museum, which exhibits Canadian art and the Old Logue Church Museum. In Vancouver: Maritime Museum, Vancouver Museum and Art Gallery, Botanical Garden and Marine Aquarium. In Nalaymo: ethnographic museum and park of petroglyphs – ancient drawings on the rocks. In Victoria: Museum of Classic Cars, Sanderbird Park – collection of Indian totems, Fort Rodd National Historic Park (old fort, which houses the museum). In Calgary: a zoo and a dinosaur park. In Edmonton: Museum of Wooden Architecture. In Saskatoon: Ukrainian Museum of Canada, which houses a large number of exhibits, telling about the culture of Canadian Ukrainians. In Regina: Telorama is a telecommunications museum. In Winnipeg: Ukrainian cultural and educational center, museum of man and nature. zoo. In Portage la Prairie: a historic Indian village, a museum of Canadian development in an ancient fort. In London, Ontario: Museum of Archaeology, Museum of the Canadian Royal Armed Forces, Children’s Museum, Reconstruction of canada’s First Master settlement. In Hamilton: Royal Museum with a famous collection of Chinese art, art gallery of Ontario with a large collection of works by British sculptor Henry Moore, zoo. In Ontario: Science Museum with a rich collection of exhibits on the history of aeronautics, a military museum, a museum of skis. Almost every city has an Indian art museum.
Incomplete secondary education in Canada (compulsory and free) is provided for children between the ages of 5-7 and 14-16. Schools are divided into state-funded provincial and municipal governments (more than 15.2 thousand schools, 5.2 million schoolchildren), and private (up to 4% of all schools). Teaching is mainly in English, in French. There are schools that are based on the content of religious or ethnic groups and societies (German, Italian, Ukrainian, Jewish), where teaching is conducted in the languages of these groups. Full secondary education continues after primary school until the age of 18-19.
Canadians receive higher education in universities in all provinces. The largest and most well-known are the queens (Kingston) and Toronto (Toronto), McGill and Montreal (Montreal), Lavalsky (Kwebek) and the University of British Columbia (Vancouver).
Periodicals, television, radio.
There are more than 110 daily newspapers and 1,200 weekly publications in Canada. About 300 newspapers and other periodicals are published in the languages of ethnic groups (German, Italian, Russian, Chinese and other languages).
Canada has an extensive national radio and television network, with about 120 television and about 580 radio stations. The largest national broadcaster <Канадиэн бродкастинг=”” корпорейшн=””> broadcasts in English and French on two television channels and four radio programmes.</Канадиэн> More than 60% of Canadians watch television programs broadcast from the United States. In Toronto, there are several Russian-language television channels that air on certain days. Satellite TV allows you to watch the main programs of Russian and Ukrainian television.